We Are What We Drink

Just as beer cases have become filled with colorful labels and wine cellars have started to fill with more regional variety than we could ever have imagined, craft spirits are becoming alternatives to the traditional big liquor names. The number of craft distilleries jumped 16% in 2018 and 26% in 2017. In terms of what that represents to the workforce, 19,529 people now work full-time at craft spirits companies.

By far, the greatest number of craft distillers, 32.7 %, are in western states, with the South coming in second at 29.3. Third is the Midwest with 19.1% and the Northeast right behind at 18.9%. Among individual states, the leader by far is California, which has 148 craft distilleries, or nearly 10% of the total. New York State is next, with 123 craft distilleries. Washington State has 106, Texas has 86, and Colorado has 80.

Craft distilleries still represent a fraction of the overall booze market, but they’re steadily picking up sales and volume. In 2016, craft distilleries held 3% of sales. By 2017, that rose to 3.8%. On the surface that seems small, but gaining nearly a percentage point in such a massive industry point to a broader shift, just as it did with beer. Looking at the volume, that becomes abundantly clear. In actual cases, the craft industry has risen from 2.5 million cases sold in 2012, to 5.8 million cases in 2017. Interestingly, more than half of the sales for craft distillers come from customers in their home state. So craft distilling is on the rise, but why? And what does it say about marketing?

Food and drink can have something that the distilling world has long dismissed: a sense of place, drawn from the soil and climate where the grains grow – drawn from the history and cultural patterns that create a sense of meaning. This is tied to a growing international movement by distillers, plant breeders and academic researchers to return distilling to what they see as its locally grounded. Spirits with a sense of place can be made by cultivating regionally specific varieties, along with farming and distilling techniques that emphasize a spirit’s local flavor. But this idea goes well beyond flavor.

Something craft distilleries have done, whether intentional or not, is to tap into or create a sense of history and, in some cases, a sense of mystery. Lifestyle and connectedness have a great impact on consumer behavior and brand preferences. Very often, we choose brands that are considered “appropriate” for our self-image, that fit within a specific context/mood, or are representational of an idea. As a result, we use brands as a relevant means of self-expression and drama. They are “beacons”. Identifying the contexts in which a brand finds life and meaning establishes a sense of connectedness. Tying it to a sense of place and time creates a story that we can immerse ourselves in. For any brand, that crafting of the story can have a huge impact on its longevity and relevance.

We identify and find purpose through the symbols we adorn ourselves with. Those symbols take on the shape of brands, which is probably why a wider variety of cultural expressions among brands can close the gap between the individual self and the commercial self.

Advertisements

Love, Rot, and Cheese: Culture and Marketing Artisanal Foods

Let’s talk about cheese. Cheese is at its most basic level carefully rotted milk. Beyond the milk itself, it is, like beer, an ancient domestication of microbial activities for human consumption. We work in concert with communities of bacteria, molds, and fungi, eating the sugars, proteins, and fats in the milk to produce the hundreds of different kinds of cheeses. It is symbiotic, sustained funk. It isn’t sexy, but it is the biological reality.

But cheese is more than biology. It is poetry and passion. It is the embodiment local identity as well as a testament to the power of mass production. That said, after an evening of exploring locally-produced charcuterie with my daughters, my thoughts drift to artisanal cheeses, not the stuff produced in sterile factories. Making and marketing artisanal cheese is a dance in how we as humans blur the lines between nature and culture, urban and rural, production and consumption. It is the product of human skill working in concert with the natural agencies of bacteria, yeasts, and molds to transform a fluid made by cows, sheep, and goats (and no doubt other milk-producing creatures I’m simply unaware of).

Cheesemakers are increasingly interested in the microbial inhabitants of local environments and the unique communities that shape a place and its cheeses. Microbial terroir emphasizes the importance of the unique geography of a place, using the qualities of specific, local microbes to craft an identity for a brand of cheese. While the microbial similarities of cheeses from different regions are often more striking than their differences, identifying cheeses through the flavors produced by their bacteria allows consumers to get to know the microbes in our lives, and through those microbes, establish a sense of connectedness and regional pride.

Beyond the unique flavors produced by virtue of location, the lifestyle is part of the appeal to consumers of artisanal cheese. The ethics and politics of locally produced foods of American farmstead or imported raw-milk cheeses are all symbols of a privileged kind of eating, but with their own challenges and their own complex cultural contexts – like all things, cheese is political. For producers, the single most relevant issue is how to create a product that is economically viable while staying true to their beliefs. There’s a very small profit margin in cheese or most other “craft” foods. No one goes into these professions to get rich. But that is, for many consumers, the draw.  Its production is about passion and commitment to the local community. In essence, all foods have social lives. But with an increased sense of local or regional identity, the antithesis of post-war industrial sameness, artisanal cheeses are becoming less an expression of privilege and wealth, and more an expression of community involvement. Uncovering the many complex practices and decisions of artisanal cheesemakers and cultivating a sense of place, shows that food is a means of building of cultural identity. And all of this matters because it extends beyond cheese to locally produced foods.

Shatto is a small family-owned and operated dairy farm located just north of the Kansas City. With approximately 350 dairy cows, they have established a strong regional following. As their website points outs, “Our family has been farming here for more than 100 years and began a dairy farm more than 80 years ago. In June 2003 our family began processing our own milk on the farm.” Two things stand out with Shatto. First, the milk has a consistent and specific taste because the herd is small and the food it eats reflects the local grasses and alfalfa. Second, Shatto is about the product, not just the profits. The messaging and the access consumers have to the dairy farm (including the small bottling plant) represent a strong sense of belonging to regional culture. The romance sells to be sure, stirring up pastoral images of a simple, rural life. It appeals to people because it is the rural counterpart to independent restaurant, locally distilled spirits, even regional start-ups. But the labor behind it sells it as well. It’s hard work, which appeals to the cultural underpinnings of the Midwestern work ethic. The things that have helped drive Shatto’s success hold true for makers of artisanal cheeses.

Handcrafted foods, whether cheese or Duroc pork, bring the practices of food production “back to the future,” reintroducing techniques that have been marginalized and largely eliminated during the modernization of industrial food production. Through artisanal cheese and other foods, producers and consumers challenge these industrial imperatives, leading to diverse and exuberant elements to our diet. For producers and the people who market their products, understanding the deeper personal and cultural connections we have with our food is central to success.

Talking Funny (Accents and Advertising)

As the world has changed, so has advertising. Promoting a product, service, idea, place-thing-to-be-sold-here isn’t just about promoting features and benefits, it is also about promoting a sense of meaning and identity. And much to my surprise, an aspect of this that too often overlooked is the importance of language.

In a country there are a host of regional dialects and accents. In the US there are dozens, though the sake of simplicity we can “group” them into broader families ranging from seven to twenty (it really depends on which linguistic model you choose to apply).  What this means is that various forms of the English language coexist and help define us in the context of where we are in relation to others. Marketers need to take into account that language is not just a way for us to speak (as in the transfer of information), it is also a revealing element of who we are.

Based on accent, word choice, etc. it is possible to determine our background and social status. Granted, depending on the context we may shift from one speech pattern to another, but the point is that language carries identifiers of class, region, gender identity, etc. (a dear friend originally from Alabama becomes decidedly more Southern after a drink or when in the company of other Southerners).  The dialect used in an advertisement therefore has an influence on the brand and the way it is perceived. Some dialects are seen as friendly and down to earth, some sound erudite, while others are viewed as authoritative. Because of these various attitudes towards the dialects of the English language, choosing the right one for a campaign is relevant to the way consumers perceive the message put forth..

Some years ago, a US-based survey found (we’ve all heard about it at some time or another) that brands using standard British English were viewed more favorably and rated higher in quality and sophistication. That could of course be disputed since context and history play a role in the interpretation, but the underlying point holds true; because the variety of English used in marketing has a powerful influence on how the audience judges the spokesperson, who also functions as a voice for the brand, the attitudes consumer forms are transferred to the overall brand. The important point being that language identity not only enhances the message put forth, but also validates it.

Ultimately, as the cultural characteristics, including speech, of the spokesperson influence the persuasive process, the ability to identify with the spokesperson based on the dialect has an influence on the purchase intention. The more connected in terms of dialect the speaker and listener are, the more favorable the evaluation of speaker, and the associated brand, will be. Language creates a deeper sense of cultural belonging. By underlining and verifying a company brand, as well as enhancing the possibility of identification, the presence of dialect has a great impact on overall perception when promoting a product or brand through television adverts – simply because of the social constructions and strong attitudes towards our speech.

What that means is that when crafting a brand platform, a campaign, or even a simple one-off piece of collateral, the importance of language goes beyond word choice. If the goal is to connect, then how we sound is as important as what we say.

 

Local Marketing, More Than Geography?

There is a belief current amongst marketing professionals that the mass market is starting to break down, and instead of an easy to target homogenous consumer groups in a mass market, the market for many products is dividing into large number of niches, that could make mass market products redundant. Now, I would be disinclined to agree with such a blanket statement (I think it’s flat wrong), but I would be inclined to agree that local marketing and hyperlocal marketing are increasingly taking center stage and will continue to grow in importance in the coming years.  “Local” means a lot in marketing these days, from search rankings and profiles to location-based games and apps.  Hyperlocal further refines this by defining itself as focusing on a very specific area, very close to home (or, your place of business.).  But, what “very close” means is relatives and apps follow us everywhere.  So what is the underlying feature, the truth so to speak, behind localization?  I believe is has less to do with physical proximity than it does with social and cultural proximity.

For example, hyperlocality plays a large role in a homogeneous suburb, perhaps, but within that suburb, and spread across a metro, there will be subgroups that will travel fairly large distances to shop at a store, attend a church, etc. es, they are affinity groups, but with physical location becoming less a factor than social location, and with the advent of being constantly dialed into the network, local and hyperlocal marketing means rethinking demographic data and how we visualize the populations we are targeting.

The important feature is that if people feel a connection to the store, they are more likely to pay attention to its marketing materials.  This is part of a social phenomenon that exists independently of any one individual’s perceptions or experiences. Such a feeling may be derived from the natural environment, but is more often made up of a mix of natural and cultural features in the setting, and generally includes the people who occupy the place. The point is that the stronger the bond at the local level, the more likely the customer is to buy.

When you’re trying to promote a business, regardless of size and reach, every little thing that you do needs to be thought out before hand. You are more than a business, you are part of the community and social fabric. Understanding the complexities of the communities you serve is central to establishing long-term relationships and sales.