AI, Advertising, and Culture

In an ever-increasingly connected world, artificial intelligence is beginning to find its way into every aspect of our lives. We are “on” 24/7and we rely more and more on our  devices, particularly our mobile devices, to help us make decisions. That rapid increase in computing power has done more than help the user. It has equipped companies with an unprecedented capacity to automate processes that previously required hours, days, and weeks of human effort. AI has allowed companies to target, adjust, and adapt at an unimaginable pace. In the same way that Siri acts as a personal assistant for its users, marketing companies are now tapping into AI to act as a personal assistant in the creation of highly effective marketing campaigns.

Currently, agencies (and their clients) use AI to sort Machine-Learning-AI-in-Finance-11-04-2016-A-1200x1200.jpg
through assets to determine and/or refine the target audience, to gather data about how to best position a brand in various contexts, and to create varied advertisements intended for a wide variety of mediums, including everything from billboards to social media. The final piece is still largely in its infancy, but will no doubt continue to grow and evolve as AI become faster and smarter. Today, the goal of AI in advertising is to optimize campaigns by placing ads in front of the right customer at the right time. As technologies evolve, advertisers will be able to limit their ads on the basis of a huge array of parameters, most of which we’re all familiar with. Targeting an individual will be based on hundreds of parameters and actions, all quantified and measure in the blink of an eye. And creative (and its placement) will adapt in near real-time. In other words, they’ll be able to micro-target at a faster pace than we can imagine.

All of that makes sense, but humans are more than individuals, we are part of broader cultural systems, which means context and cultural cues matter. Yes, each customer is unique and therefore each customer journey is unique. However, there are broader social, symbolic, and cultural forces that guide our behavior depending on the situation at hand. So, the question is, can AI account for those cultural patterns and processes?

Considering the rapid developments in machine and deep learning, these systems will become increasingly capable of teaching themselves to make more precise and effective decisions based on a broader set of inputs. Ultimately this means that for AI to be truly move beyond transactional relevance, it will need to have a more balanced approach, which is to have a robust understanding of people’s aspirations, interactions with each other, and social connections. What are they trying to get done, what are the barriers to that, how do they create a sense of belonging, etc.?

We create culture, interact with it, are affected by it, and can even be destroyed by it. Culture applies its own logic, has a memory, endures after its makers are gone, can be repurposed in supple ways, and can induce action. Because culture can do things we cannot do as individuals, like fostering collective action or making life easier by providing unspoken assumptions on which we can base our lives, AI will need to evolve to do more than react to clicks.

 

 

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Talking Funny (Accents and Advertising)

As the world has changed, so has advertising. Promoting a product, service, idea, place-thing-to-be-sold-here isn’t just about promoting features and benefits, it is also about promoting a sense of meaning and identity. And much to my surprise, an aspect of this that too often overlooked is the importance of language.

In a country there are a host of regional dialects and accents. In the US there are dozens, though the sake of simplicity we can “group” them into broader families ranging from seven to twenty (it really depends on which linguistic model you choose to apply).  What this means is that various forms of the English language coexist and help define us in the context of where we are in relation to others. Marketers need to take into account that language is not just a way for us to speak (as in the transfer of information), it is also a revealing element of who we are.

Based on accent, word choice, etc. it is possible to determine our background and social status. Granted, depending on the context we may shift from one speech pattern to another, but the point is that language carries identifiers of class, region, gender identity, etc. (a dear friend originally from Alabama becomes decidedly more Southern after a drink or when in the company of other Southerners).  The dialect used in an advertisement therefore has an influence on the brand and the way it is perceived. Some dialects are seen as friendly and down to earth, some sound erudite, while others are viewed as authoritative. Because of these various attitudes towards the dialects of the English language, choosing the right one for a campaign is relevant to the way consumers perceive the message put forth..

Some years ago, a US-based survey found (we’ve all heard about it at some time or another) that brands using standard British English were viewed more favorably and rated higher in quality and sophistication. That could of course be disputed since context and history play a role in the interpretation, but the underlying point holds true; because the variety of English used in marketing has a powerful influence on how the audience judges the spokesperson, who also functions as a voice for the brand, the attitudes consumer forms are transferred to the overall brand. The important point being that language identity not only enhances the message put forth, but also validates it.

Ultimately, as the cultural characteristics, including speech, of the spokesperson influence the persuasive process, the ability to identify with the spokesperson based on the dialect has an influence on the purchase intention. The more connected in terms of dialect the speaker and listener are, the more favorable the evaluation of speaker, and the associated brand, will be. Language creates a deeper sense of cultural belonging. By underlining and verifying a company brand, as well as enhancing the possibility of identification, the presence of dialect has a great impact on overall perception when promoting a product or brand through television adverts – simply because of the social constructions and strong attitudes towards our speech.

What that means is that when crafting a brand platform, a campaign, or even a simple one-off piece of collateral, the importance of language goes beyond word choice. If the goal is to connect, then how we sound is as important as what we say.

 

You Are What You Brand

It sometimes seems lost on people, but consumers have begun to face an important problem: the increased uncertainty about various product attributes. This arises from various asymmetric information consumers have access to, regarding a specific product. Consumers tend to assess certain product attributes in a holistic manner rather than a case by case basis – bigger, faster, longer may still sell low-interest items, but it is increasingly losing its traction. Consequently, both extrinsic and intrinsic factors have to be accounted when trying to differentiate a product from its competitors. And therein lies the central distinction between products, campaigns, etc. and brands. Brands are bigger, richer, and drive us to act without always know precisely we we’re doing it. Brands can potentially play many different roles in the consumer decision process. That opens up a range of deeper questions about the role of a brand in the cosmic sense. How brands help us construct and reflect our identity is one way to think about it – and it’s a damn fine way, at that.

Often, consumers will choose a brand that are congruent with their self-image. In this particular way each consumer at an individual basis will try to reflect his or her own identity through choice. When part of a larger social group, consumer choices tend to converge to a certain pattern thus forming the basics of an individual social identity For example, a may choose to buy a pair of Doc Martens as an act of ubiquitous self-expression. If the buyer considers himself a post-punk soccer mom the boots are also a visual expression of being part of the middle-aged-once-a-punk tribe. Each individual lifestyle reflects a person’s values, life vision, and aesthetic style. It also reflects a shared set of ideologies, collective style, and sense of belonging.

Marketers tend to use brands to differentiate a company’s products from competitors and to create a sense of superior value to customers – this is frequently done by talking about product attributes. The most important step in creating and delivering a superior value to customers is by adding meaningful brand associations that create value beyond the intrinsic characteristics of a product. One of the most important characteristics of a brand is the self-expressive function, meaning that value goes beyond the immediate benefits of your stuff and imparts a sense of psychological and social well being. Brands have the power to communicate valuable information and can be used and perceived in many different ways by consumers, people with similar beliefs, and those closest to us. In other words, brands reflect our identities and a lot of folks tend to use brands as a mean to express their identity and lifestyle. Indeed, this is becoming more prevalent as peoples seek to break down the paradox of belonging to something bigger than themselves while aspiring to the American ideal of hyper-individuality.

In addition to serving as an external signal, brands can be used to create and confirm a consumer self-concept and unique identity. Individuals try to express their identity through all means they have at their disposal. By choosing a particular brand, a person reaffirms both his own and people’s perception about his desired identity. As a result, people use brands to reassure themselves and to signal others what kind of person they are. In particular, consumers tend to prefer brands that are convergent with their perceived ideal identity. As a result of that self-expression, a predilection for a certain brand is the result of only sociological factors because a person’s need for self-expression is the result of interactions with other members of the community. In other words, brands are used as a mean of expressing their own identity, brand predilection is the result of intrinsic factors, and brand preference is the result of extrinsic factors. What that means is that a successful brand must have a strong degree of resonance with both consumer personal identity and socio-cultural identity.

As a consequence, consumers’ needs for self-expression can be satiated not only be using certain brands but also by other available means of self-expression. This is particularly important when analyzing the correlations between brands and lifestyle because the lines between personal identity and everyday doings are becoming more blurred. Products are just things, but brands become beacons.

Why does it matter? It maters because brands can be used to create a unique social identity for each customer. Brands are more than just instruments of hedonic experiences because they have the power to harness and channel specific hedonistic desires in expressing a bigger sociological and psychological construct such as lifestyle. And this is where data and linear thinking fall flat (you just knew it was coming). Data get at the what and the why, but they don’t get at the richer aspects of the human experience, the why behind the what. Quantitative information isn’t relevant if it only gives you have the picture – the Mona Lisa can be broken down into its constituent parts but that doesn’t explain why people will spend hours in line for a glimpse at it. A John Deere cap does a great job of keeping the sun out of your eyes and that can be quantified. But those same data points can’t explain why the brand resonates with Midwest alternative kids to such a degree.

The answers lie in rethinking how we address brands and branding. By expanding the brand conversation to one of identity, longing, identity it allows us to penetrate the white noise and reach our consumers, turning them into advocates.

 

Making Tech Sexy: Share of Culture and Building Brands

The old advertising model advocated the creation of an external brand image to influence consumers. It talked about benefits, it talked about the company, it promised to give you sex appeal. Those times are long past. This is partly due to the sheer number of channels in which people interact, but we believe there is a deeper reason. And that deeper reason is that successful brands both reflect and transform culture. In other words, talking about what you do is no longer enough. To compete in today’s landscape, you have to convey why you exist and connect it to how people experience their world.

Today we’re seeing that certain issues which used to be considered secondary to a brand are suddenly primary. People are not just choosing the best, the sexiest, or the cheapest. They’re choosing brands that have meaning. Their concept of nature, of self, of society takes center stage. And this is where brands are taking on a new and intriguing role.

So, what role does brand play in this landscape? The simple answer is that brands become symbols for crafting identity. They introduce, reflect, and influence meaning. The most resonant brands are creating value not just by the products or services they represent, but by the symbolic power they impart.

We believe that to be relevant and long-lasting, a brand must operate like a member of a culture. A company must share out its core values and articulate WHY it exists. A brand must stand for something and drive people to participate in it, become part of it. People want to belong to something bigger than themselves. People need to be part of a tribe. A

 How it relates to the creative process

We are not focusing on complex cultural concepts just for the sake of making people smarter. That’s completely useless if you can’t do anything with it. As such, we take the insights we uncover and integrate them into a creative strategy by asking questions such as: “What are the cultural forces and tensions that are acting on the consumer to influence how they perceive value?” or “What are the conventions or the categories that you may or may not want to disrupt?” The answers to these questions build a proposition to bridge between research findings and creativity that illuminates a new pathway to growth. Through that proposition, we are able to connect greater meaning to brands and grow share of culture. If you can understand the domain of culture, and actually use that understanding to build a strategy, you can increase relevance. Starting with a focus on cultural insights ultimately leads to looking at a problem from different perspectives.

Why do we take this particular approach? Because at a fundamental level we believe that when people make a purchase, whether it be a home, a new gaming system, a vacation package or whatever it is, they are actually using that product or service to add meaning to their lives. The meaning that has been created in the goods and services that everybody buys are not intrinsic to those goods and services, it’s actually our culture that says a diamond has more value than a ruby, and gold has more value than silver, an Apple mobile device has more value than a Nokia or what have you. If you come to marketing from that point of view, it suggests that the choice they’re making is actually very important to them. From that perspective, the marketer has a responsibility to do the right thing by those consumers, who are choosing a certain product in order to craft their identity. That means there are really no boundaries for clients and the emphasis becomes one of solving a problem rather than executing on a task. And quite simply, that sets up a brand for meaningful creative work.

Putting It Into Practice

So, what does all of this look like? Let’s take you through an example. BaM was asked by Microsoft to quickly come up with ideas for Windows Gaming’s VIP party for Gamescom in Cologne. Gamescom is the video game industry’s largest European event, with well over a quarter-million visitors and thousands of journalists, all looking to see advances in gaming technology. In other words, this is a very big, very visible event. And as with all such events, people are there to learn but also to have a good time, which of course means parties. But while Windows is a major platform for development and is home to a huge audience of PC gamers, it isn’t necessarily seen as the sexiest of brands. Windows needed two main things; 1) ideas to create buzz at the event and 2) a way to get VIPs to their party. Equally important, this was the event where Microsoft would premiere the auto racing game Asphalt 8, it’s newest release for Windows.

So, we began asking a very basic question. What makes a party meaningful? Through a series of interviews and recounting our own experiences with parties in a narrative-based brainstorm, we came to a very basic truth – a party is just another event, but a destination people want to actively be a part of. It creates a sense of excitement and suggests the promise of stories to come. For the attendee, a destination is something special, something tailored, something to live on after the drinking and dancing are done.

The next step was to gain a richer understanding of developer culture by thinking about them as a “culture of practice”. Culture of practice generally refers to the manifestation of a culture or subculture, especially in regard to the traditional and customary practices of a particular ethnic or other cultural group. In other words, what commonalities could we uncover in the developer tribe that we could speak to?  Two key insights bubbled to the surface. First, there are close links with driving culture in that machines are points of fascination. But the machine itself isn’t enough. They want to understand it, test it, experience what it can do. Design, how quickly it reacts, how it performs, etc. factor into a love of technology – it isn’t about the parts that make it up, it’s about the sum total of the experience. Second, developers have in the past been often overlooked at events like this. They are important and people listen to them, but once the technical discussions are over they have traditionally been relegated to the “geek” corner. Not anymore. Look at the two classic characteristics of geeks: social ineptitude and obsessive devotion to some pursuit. They’re neither social climbers nor rebels, because they are indifferent to how the world sees them. But those days are, in many ways, dead and buried. Cory Arcangel is a Damien Hirst­y hipster artist. Joss Whedon is not a geek but a talented hack writer in the tradition of Ben Hecht, capable of synthesizing junk culture in clever and knowing ways. The point being, developers are as much artists and rebels as anyone else. And they deserve recognition for it.

So, what if we paired the love of the machine with the cool factor of “geek culture”? Almost all of these developers are deeply familiar with the supercars in driving games like Asphalt 8, but how many have actually been in one? What if we created a taxi service involving high-end, high-performance cars? Even if our VIPs didn’t have a strong fascination with these amazing machines, they would jump at the opportunity to be in one. It spoke to the love of performance and technology, but also the sheer bad-assery of the design.

Knowing our venue was several miles from the event, it also provided an opportunity to do more than experience a pointless two-block ride – it let the passenger really feel the car. We found an incredible rental vendor and drivers to ferry our VIPs in Lamborghinis, Audi R8s, and Ferraris – the sort of things you might be familiar with if you were eagerly awaiting the next release of Asphalt.

The next step was to create awareness. Rather than sending an email or note that might never be seen, BaM created exclusive key cards, each featuring different 8-bit party icons for partygoers to present at the door. But for our select group of VIPs, we created cards featuring an illustration of an 8-bit car with handwritten phone number. Dialing that number landed them a ride to the club in our supercar taxi service. This did more than just get you to the event. It created a sense of exclusivity for the passenger and curiosity for the onlooker. It created buzz. Suddenly people were asking, what cool thing does Microsoft have going on and how do I get in?

Party Time

The cars and the buzz were great, but the party had to pay it all off. And this is where details matter most. BaM gave the club’s drink menu a redesign with retro-gaming themed names like Castle Key, Magic Elixir and Combo Move. The staff wore shirts featuring 8-bit artwork that corresponded to the drinks they were serving. And partygoers had the chance to play a sneak preview of Asphalt 8: Airborne on Surface tablets that were walked around by the staff.

Coolness is defined in many ways by the company you keep. In this case, the party did more than attract our guests. It produced both gatecrashers and a visit from the polizei – nothing says “successful party” like people from other organizations, like Google, trying to get in and the police showing up to manage the growing crowd outside the building.

Take Aways

Great story, yes, but why does it matter? At a practical level, we were able to demonstrate that Windows provides outstanding game quality. In other words, we were able to change perceptions about the brand (Windows is, it turns out, kind of cool) and the products. We did more than just make the case for the platform and the game, we generated increased interest and share of culture.

It also opened up new venues to sell games. By proving the products in a very public way, we could exploits Windows’ tremendous reach. We’re largely outside the App Store/Android battle. By demonstrating what Windows has to offer, it allows developers and designers to broaden their market, thus providing Microsoft with new partners, products, and prestige.

Finally, at a broader level we were able to start shifting perceptions of Microsoft and Windows. Added to the successes of the Surface Pro, the exclusive use of Windows products in DC universe programming, and an increasingly user-friendly operating system, this event helped the company capture a greater share of meaning in the broader culture. It helped move the conversation from moments of advertising and marketing, to part of a deeper, positive undercurrent. In other words, it helped capture a greater share of culture.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Story, Development, and Design

Storytelling is not simply narrative. It is an opportunity to communicate values in a way that is resonant and memorable, allowing the people taking it in to position themselves in the story, see its relevance to their current situation, and then play forward a narrative about their own role in the story of now. It’s a way of uncovering the complexities of a person’s world and designing within that context.

How does this happen? It happens through stories in which a human protagonist is presented with an unknown and has to make a choice. At this moment of choice, the listener feels the tension of what might go right and wrong, projects herself into that situation and, in so doing, experiences the values with which the protagonist wrestles. So how does it relate to development and design?

Story art and craft is one of the best and oldest ways to engage an audience. We approach every project, regardless of its size or scope, from this perspective. Not just story-first, but structure first. Just like screenwriters do or authors do. There are, of course, countless books on story art and craft, typically for writers, filmmakers, game designers and artists, but they’re rarely, if ever, written for the people who build websites, software, tools, services, etc. that are not necessarily art or entertainment.

Designers, product managers, developers, content strategists, they can all benefit from taking on a storytelling approach in the process of creation. Take for example the use of experience maps. The maps try to represent an actual example of how a person (or persona) went through and did something they wanted to do. The maps are generally chronological, moving forward through the hours of the persona’s actions one stage at a time. The phrase “experience map” came about because we tend to want to create tools most relevant to the job we’re assigned, but in practice we need to be agnostic of whether the persona is using digital tools or not, or a combination to tools. The map represents the journey a person takes from the idea of accomplishing something to having accomplished that thing in the end. We want to see how it all hangs together from the persona’s perspective.

There can be as many experience/journey maps for a particular persona as there are deviations in the way they do that thing. For example, if a persona was taking a commercial flight, there might be different maps for a business-related flight than a leisure-oriented flight. There might be different maps based on whether it’s a last-minute or urgent flight. There might be different maps for long versus short flights, flights where the persona has to get work done before landing, flights where the persona is scared of flying, etc. The relevance is that the mental model represents a set of states of mind (mental spaces) that a person might pop into and out of during this journey toward accomplishing a goal. The states of mind might proceed in a nice linear fashion. Or they might represent a more cyclical approach, where the person revisits a previous state of mind again to re-evaluate something, to continue something, or to address something new that has come up. And therein lies the power of storytelling. We are designing with the notion that the goal and the steps to achieving it are front and center. Taking this approach not only allows for better design, it ensures that the things we construct are tied into the broader ecosystem in which people operate.