When thinking about how the study of symbols and signs can factor into interface design (whether for the traditional web or a mobile environment) two questions come to mind. First, up to which level of a semiotic sign – iconic, index, and symbolic sign – should symbolic meaning be dealt with in eBranding? Second, how are aspects of color and texture as a semiotic signs related to the purposes of 1) increased brand awareness, 2) enhanced brand loyalty, and 3) cause to purchase/commit?
I’m characterizing the different modes of reference of color application through Pierce’s model distinguishing iconic, index and symbolic signs. Especially iconic and indexical signs seem to structure representation in a new way from the design. The sign may refer as an icon, an index, or a symbol to its object (X). Color may represent icon index, and symbol by the viewer’s interpretation. So, color of the webpage may function as an iconic sign when it refers to another thing with a similar color or texture. Tan may, for example, refer to limestone even though there is no real limestone imagery used.
An indexical unit draws attention by being existent and not similar as does the iconic item. The cultural and social background of the person interpreting the site’s images and colors the third level of “symbol”. This means symbols are more subject to variation in response and reaction than icons, icons more so than indexes. Returning to the use of tan, it may reflect a sense of the exotic by tying it to underlying associations with the desert and the Western construction of mythical representations of the Middle East. The point is that color is more than we think and can be remarkably powerful in helping establish connections with the user. It is a symbol and symbols have tremendous value.
Signs do not function separately, but form multilayered references. The complexity of a sign is increased because the references are not stable or fixed qualities of the product. Since references of the sign can be interpreted differently at different times and contexts, it means they display greater variability when not grounded in iconic and indexical messages.
So how do we use this when developing a site? Execution means integration, resemblance, and metaphor:
- Colors can integrate, that is they create a visual unity of the elements shown.
- Color can make objects and scenes resemble very closely what they look like in reality.
- Through symbolic metaphors, colors, images, and textures address themselves to the imaginary and imply comparisons. Identity is transferred from one object to another (i.e. website to prospective consumer).