Ethnography is two things: (1) the fundamental research method of cultural anthropology, and (2) the written text produced to report ethnographic research results. Ethnography as method seeks to answer central anthropological questions concerning the ways of life of living human beings. Ethnographic questions generally concern the link between culture and behavior and/or how cultural processes develop over time.
In order to answer their research questions and gather research material, ethnographers often live among the people they are studying, or at least spend a considerable amount of time with them. While there, ethnographers engage in “participant observation”, which means that they participate as much as possible in local daily life (everything from important ceremonies and rituals to ordinary things like meal preparation and consumption) while also carefully observing everything they can about it. Through this, ethnographers seek to gain what is called an “emic” perspective, or the “native’s point(s) of view” without imposing their own conceptual frameworks. The emic world view, which may be quite different from the “etic”, or outsider’s perspective on local life, is a unique and critical part of anthropology.
Unfortunately, it is the element of time that is increasingly overlooked in business-focused ethnographic work. The two-hour interview seems to tell us everything we need to know, rather than expansive learning. While there are legitimate concerns over cost and time in most business structures, there is a point at which anything of real value is lost when we don’t push back with clients, internal and external, and relay the true value of a good ethnographic project – depth. Depth does not come from a shallow interaction, it comes from internalization, critical observation and reflection.
Think of it like the relationships you have in your own life. The first date, indeed the first few months, are giddy and exciting, often filled with moments you will never forget. But are they a reflection of the person with whom you are engaged or a brief moment defined by the context of dating. What we know after being involved with someone for a few months or years is significantly richer than what we know after a few hours. Why? Because we learn to understand the other person’s worldview along with our own. We learn to observe, ask better questions and think about things in we may not have noticed in the early days of courtship.
There is value in short interviews, whether you take an ethnographic approach or not. But there is as much, if not more value in taking the time necessary to really think, experience and reflect. It may not be good for the quarterly bottom line, but it is when looking at the long-term viability of a brand, product, or company.